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美国宪法修正案_Amendments to the Constitution

美国宪法修正案_Amendments to the Constitution

美国宪法修正案

美国宪法修正案(Amendments to the Constitution)按照原美国宪法第五条、由国会提出并经各州批准、增添和修改美利坚合众国宪法的条款。前十条修正案于1789年9月25日提出,1791年12月15日被十三个州批准生效,被称为United States Bill of Rights (权利法案)。另外还有十七条修正案。

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美国宪法修正案

截至目前为止,美国宪法共通过了27个有效的修正案。其中,最初的10个修正案是一次性被通过的,因为其主要规定了人民的权利和对政府的限制,因此被统称为权利法案。此后的17个修正案则是逐次获得通过的。

第一条修正案〔1791〕

国会不得制定关于下列事项的法律:确立国教或禁止宗教活动自由;限制言论自由或出版自由;或剥夺人民和平集会和向政府请愿申冤的权利。

第二条修正案〔1791〕 

纪律严明的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,因此人民持有和携带武器的权利不得侵犯。 

第三条修正案〔1791〕 

在和平时期,未经房主同意,士兵不得在民房驻扎;除依法律规定的方式,战时也不允许如此。 

第四条修正案〔1791〕 

人民的人身、住宅、文件和财产不受无理搜查和扣押的权利,不得侵犯。除依照合理根据,以宣誓或代誓宣言保证,并具体说明搜查地点和扣押的人或物,不得发出搜查和扣押状。 

第五条修正案〔1791〕 

无论何人,除非根据大陪审团的报告或起诉,不得受判处死罪或其他不名誉罪行之审判,惟发生在陆、海军中或发生在战时或出现公共危险时服现役的民兵中的案件, 不在此限。任何人不得因同一罪行为而两次遭受生命或身体的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自证其罪;不经正当法律程序,不得被剥夺生命、自由或财产。不给予公平赔偿,私有财产不得充作公用。 

第六条修正案〔1791〕 

在一切刑事诉讼中,被告享有下列权利:由犯罪行为发生地的州和地区的公正陪审团予以迅速而公开的审判,该地区应事先已由法律确定;得知被控告的性质和理由;同原告证人对质;以强制程序取得对其有利的证人;取得律师帮助为其辩护。 

第七条修正案〔1791〕 

在普通法的诉讼中,其争执价值超过20元,由陪审团审判的权利应受到保护。由陪审团裁决的事实,合众国的任何法院除非按照普通法规则,不得重新审查。 

第八条修正案〔1791〕 

不得要求过多的保释金,不得处以过重的罚金,不得施加残酷和非常的惩罚。 

第九条修正案〔1791〕 

本宪法对某些权利的列举,不得被解释为否定或忽视由人民保留的其他权利。 

第十条修正案〔1791〕 

本宪法未授予合众国、也未禁止各州行使的权力,保留给各州行使,或保留给人民行使之。 

第十一条修正案〔1795〕 

合众国的司法权,不得被解释为可以扩展到受理由他州公民或任何外国公民或臣民对合众国一州提出的或起诉的任何普通法或衡平法的诉讼。 

第十二条修正案〔1804〕 

选举人在各自州内集会,投票选举总统和副总统,其中必须至少有一人不是选举人所属州的居民。选举人须在选票上写明被选为总统之人的姓名,并在另一选票上写明被选为副总统之人的姓名。选举人须将所有被选为总统之人和所有被选为副总统之人分别开列名单,写明每人所得票数,并在该名单上签名作证,然后封印送合众国政府所在地,呈参议院议长。参议院议长在参议院众议院全体议员面前开拆所有证明书,然后计算票数。获得总统选票最多的人,如所得票数超过所选派选举人总数的半数,即为总统。如无人获得这种过半数票,众议院应立即从被选为总统之人名单中得票最多的但不超过3人中间,投票选举总统。但选举总统时,以州为单位计票,每州全体代表有一票表决权。2/3的州各有一名或多名众议员出席,即构成选举总统的法定人数,决选总统需要所有州的过半数票。〔当选举总统的权力转 移到众议院时,如该院在次年3月4日前尚未选出总统,则由副总统代理总统,如同总统死亡或宪法规定的其他丧失任职能力的情况一样。〕得副总统选票最多者, 如所得票数超过所选派选举人总数的半数,即为副总统,如无人得票超过半数,参议院应从名单上得票最多的两人中选举副总统。选举副总统的法定人数由参议员总 数的2/3构成,选出副总统需要参议员总数的过半数票。但依宪法无资格担任总统的人,也无资格担任合众国副总统。 

第十三条修正案〔1865〕 

第一款 

在合众国境内或受合众国管辖的任何地方,奴隶制和强迫劳役都不得存在,唯作为对依法判罪者犯罪之惩罚,不在此限。 

第二款 

国会有权以适当立法实施本条。 

第十四条修正案〔1868〕 美国宪法修正案第十四条

第一款 

凡在合众国出生或归化合众国并受其管辖的人,均为合众国的和他们居住州的公民。任何一州,都不得制定或实施限制合众国公民的特权或豁免权的任何法律;不经正当法律程序,不得剥夺任何人的生命、自由或财产;对于在其管辖下的任何人,亦不得拒绝给予平等法律保护。

第二款 

众议员的名额应按各州人口比例进行分配,每州人口统计包括该州除未纳税的印第安人之外的全部人口。但在选举合众国总统和副总统选举人、国会议员、州行政和司法官员或州议会议员的任何选举中,一州的〔年满21岁并且〕是合众国公民的任何男性居民,如其上述选举权被剥夺或受到任何方式的限制(因参加叛乱或其他犯 罪而被剥夺者除外),则该州代表权的基础,应按以上男性公民的人数占该州年满21岁男性公民总人数的比例核减。 

第三款 

无论何人,凡先前曾以国会议员,或合众国官员,或任何州议会议员,或任何州行政或司法官员的身份宣誓维护合众国宪法,以后颠覆或反叛合众国,或给予合众国敌人帮助或支援,概不得担任国会参议员或众议员或总统和副总统选举人,或担任合众国或任何州属下的任何文职或军职官员。但国会得以两院各2/3的票数取消此种限制。 

第四款 

对于法律批准的合众国公共债务,包括因支付平定作乱或反叛有功人员的年金和奖金而产生的债务,其效力不得有所怀疑。但无论合众国或任何一州,都不得承担或偿付因援助对合众国的作乱或反叛而产生的任何债务或义务,亦不得承担或偿付因丧失或解放任何奴隶而提出的任何赔偿要求;所有这类债务、义务和要求,都应被认为是非法和无效的。 

第五款 

国会有权以适当立法实施本条规定。 

第十五条修正案〔1870〕 

第一款 

合众国公民的投票权,不得因种族、肤色或曾被强迫服劳役而被合众国或任何一州加以剥夺或限制。 

第二款 

国会有权以适当立法实施本条。 

第十六条修正案〔1913〕 

国会有权对任何来源的收入规定和征收所得税,不必在各州按比例分配,也无须考虑任何人口普查或人口统计。 

第十七条修正案〔1913〕 

〔一〕合众国参议院由每州两名参议员组成,参议员由本州人民选举,任期6年;每名参议员各有一票表决权。每个州的选举人应具备该州州议会人数最多一院选举人所需具备之资格。 

〔二〕任何一州在参议院的代表出现缺额时,该州行政当局应发布选举令,以填补此项缺额,但任何一州的议会得授权该州行政长官,在人民依该议会指示举行选举填补缺额以前,任命临时参议员。 

〔三〕对本条修正案的解释不得影响在本条修正案作为宪法的一部分生效以前当选的任何参议员的选举或任期。 

第十八条修正案〔1919〕 

第一款 

本条批准一年后,禁止在合众国及其管辖下的一切领土内酿造、出售或运送作为饮料的致醉酒类;禁止此类酒类输入或输出合众国及其管辖下的一切领土。 

第二款 

国会和各州都有权以适当立法实施本条。 

第三款 

本条除非在国会将其提交各州之日起七年以内,由各州议会按本宪法规定批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。 

第十九条修正案〔1920〕 

〔一〕合众国公民的选举权,不得因性别而被合众国或任何一州加以剥夺或限制。 

〔二〕国会有权以适当立法实施本条。 

第二十条修正案〔1933〕 

第一款 

本条未获批准前,总统和副总统的任期在原定任期届满之年的1月20日正午结束,参议员和众议员的任期在本条未获批准前原定任期届满之年的1月3日正午结束,他们继任人的任期在同时开始。 

第二款 

国会应每年至少开会一次,除国会以法律另订日期外,此会议在1月3日正午开始。 

第三款 

如当选总统在规定总统任期开始的时间之前亡故,当选副总统应成为总统。如在规定总统任期开始的时间以前,总统尚未选出,或当选总统不合乎资格,则当选副总统应代理总统直到产生一名合乎资格的总统时为止。在当选总统和当选副总统都不合乎资格时,国会得以法律规定代理总统之人,或宣布选出代理总统的办法。此人应代理总统直到产生一名合乎资格的总统或副总统时为止。 

第四款 

国会得以法律对以下情况作出规定:在选举总统的权利转移到众议院时,可被该院选为总统的人中有人死亡;在选举副总统的权利转移到参议院时,可被该院选为副总统的人中有人死亡。 

第五款 

第一款和第二款应在本条批准以后的10月15日生效。 

第六款 

本条除非在其提交各州之日起7年以内,由3/4州议会批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。 

第二十一条修正案〔1933〕 

第一款 

美利坚合众国宪法第十八条修正案现予废除。 

第二款 

在合众国任何州、准州或属地内,凡违反当地法律为在当地发货或使用而运送或输入致醉酒类,均予以禁止。 

第三款 

本条除非在国会将其提交各州之日起7年以内,由各州修宪会议依本宪法规定批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。 

第二十二条修正案〔1951〕 

第一款 

无论何人,当选担任总统职务不得超过两次;无论何人,在他人当选总统任期内担任总统职务或代理总统两年以上,不得当选担任总统职务一次以上。但本条不适用于在国会提出本条时正在担任总统职务的任何人;也不妨碍在本条生效时正在担任总统职务或代理总统的任何人在一届任期结束前的时间里继续担任总统职务或代理总统。 

第二款 

本条除非在国会将其提交各州之日起7年以内,由3/4州议会批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。 

第二十三条修正案〔1961〕 

第一款 

作 为合众国政府所在地的特区,应依国会规定方式选派:一定数目的总统和副总统选举人,其数目等于把特区看作一个州时,它在国会中有权拥有的参议员和众议员人 数的总和,但决不得超过人口最少之州的选举人人数。他们是在各州所选派的选举人以外增添的人,但为了选举总统和副总统的目的,应被视为一个州选派的选举人;他们在特区集会,履行第十二条修正案所规定的职责。 

第二款 

国会有权以适当立法实施本条。 

第二十四条修正案〔1964〕 

第一款 

在总统或副总统,总统或副总统选举人、或国会参议员或众议员的任何预选或其他选举中,合众国公民的选举权不得因未交纳人头税或其他税而被合众国或任何一州加以剥夺或限制。 

第二款 

国会有权以适当立法实施本条。 

第二十五条修正案〔1967〕 

第一款 

如遇总统被免职、亡故或辞职,副总统应成为总统。 

第二款 

凡当副总统职位出缺时,总统应提名一名副总统,经国会两院都以过半数票批准后就职。 

第三款 

凡当总统向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,称他不能够履行其职务的权力和责任,直至他向他们提交一份内容与此相反的声明为止,其权力和责任应由副总统作为代理总统履行。 

第四款 

凡当副总统和行政各部主官的多数或国会通过法律设立的其他机构成员的多数,向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,称总统不能够履行总统职务的权力和责任时,副总统应立即作为代理总统承担总统职务的权力和责任。此后,当总统向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,称丧失能力的情况不存在时,他应恢复总统职务的权力和责任,除非副总统和行政各部主官的多数或国会通过法律设立的其他机构成员的多数在4天之内向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,称总统不能够履行总统职务的权力和责任。在这种情况下,国会应对此问题作出裁决,如在休会期间,应为此目的在48小时以内集会。如果国会在收到后一书面声明 后的21天之内,或者如果国会因适逢休会而按照要求专门为此目的集会以后的21天之内,以两院2/3的票数决定总统不能够履行总统职务的权力和责任,则副总统应继续作为代理总统履行总统职务的权力和责任;否则总统应恢复总统职务的权力和责任。 

第二十六条修正案〔1971〕 

第一款 

年满18岁或18岁以上的合众国公民的选举权,不得因为年龄而被合众国或任何一州加以剥夺或限制。 

第二款 

国会有权以适当立法实施本条。 

第二十七条正案 (1992)

改变参议员和众议员服务报酬的法律,在众议员选举举行之前不得生效。

美国宪法修正案(中英文对照)

Amendments to the United States Constitution:(美国宪法修正案

(注:括号内为参考译文)

前十条修正案于1789年9月25日提出,1791年12月15日被十三个州批准生效,被称为United States Bill of Rights (权利法案),如下:

Amendment 1:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

(国会不得制定关于下列事项的法律:确立国教或禁止信教自由;剥夺言论自由或出版自由;或剥夺人民和平集会和向政府请愿伸冤的权利。)

Amendment 2:

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

(一支管理良好的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,因此人民持有和携带武器的权利不得侵犯。)

Amendment 3:

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

 (未经房主同意,士兵平时不得驻扎在任何住宅;除依法律规定的方式,战时也不得驻扎。)

 Amendment 4:

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

 (人民的人身、住宅、文件和财产不受无理搜查和扣押的权利,不得侵犯。除依据可能成立的理由,以宣誓或代誓宣言保证,并详细说明搜查地点和扣押的人或物,不得发出搜查和扣押状。

Amendment 5:

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 (无论何人,除非根据大陪审团的报告或起诉书,不受死罪或其他重罪的审判,但发生在陆、海军中或发生在战时或出现公共危险时服役的民兵中的案件除外。任何人 不得因同一犯罪行为而两次遭受生命或身体的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自证其罪;不经正当法律程序,不得被剥夺生命、自由或财产。不给予公平赔偿,私 有财产不得充作公用。)

 Amendment 6:

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

(在一切刑事诉讼中,被告有权由犯罪行为发生地的州和地区的公正陪审团予以迅速和公开的审判,该地区应事先已由法律确定;得知控告的性质和理由;同原告证人对质;以强制程序取得对其有利的证人;并取得律师帮助为其辩护。)

Amendment 7: 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

(在习惯法的诉讼中,其争执价额超过二十美元,由陪审团审判的权利应受到保护。由陪审团裁决的事实,合众国的任何法院除非按照习惯法规则,不得重新审查。)

Amendment 8: 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 (不得要求过多的保释金,不得处以过重的罚金,不得施加残酷和非常的惩罚。)

Amendment 9: 

 The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

(本宪法对某些权利的列举,不得被解释为否定或轻视由人民保留的其他权利。)

Amendment 10: 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 (宪法未授予合众国、也未禁止各州行使的权力,由各州各自保留,或由人民保留。)

另外还有十七条修正案,分列如下:

 Amendment 11: 

Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.

Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

(合众国的司法权,不得被解释为适用于由他州公民或任何外国公民或国民对合众国一州提出的或起诉的任何普通法或衡平法的诉讼。)

Amendment 12: 

Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.

Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. --]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

(选举人在各自州内集会,投票选举总统和副总统,其中至少有一人不是选举人本州的居民。选举人须在选票上写明被选为总统之人的姓名,并在另一选票上写明校选 为副总统之人的姓名。选举人须将所有被选为总统之人和所有被选为副总统之人分别开列名单,写明每人所得票数;在该名单上签名作证,将封印后的名单送合众国 政府所在地,交参议院议长收。参议院议长在参议院众议院全体议员面前开拆所有证明书,然后计算票数。获得总统选票最多的人,如所得票数超过所选派选举人 总数的半数,即为总统。如无人获得这种过半数票,众议院应立即从被选为总统之人名单中得票最多的但不超过三人中间,投票选举总统。但选举总统时,以州为单 位计票,每州代表有一票表决权。三分之二的州各有一名或多名众议员出席,即构成选举总统的法定人数,选出总统需要所有州的过半数票。[当选举总统的权力转 移到众议院时,如该院在次年三月四日前尚未选出总统,则由副总统代理总统,如同总统死亡或宪法规定的其他丧失任职能力的情况一样。]⑩得副总统选票最多的 人,如所得票数超过所选派选举人总数的半数,即为副总统。如无人得过半数票,参议院应从名单上得票最多的两人中选举副总统。选举副总统的法定人数由参议员 总数的三分之二构成,选出副总统需要参议员总数的过半数票。但依宪法无资格担任总统的人,也无资格担任合众国副总统。)

Amendment 13: 

Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.

Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment.

Section 1.

 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.

 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 (第一款 在合众国境内受合众国管辖的任何地方,奴隶制和强制劳役都不得存在,但作为对于依法判罪的人的犯罪的惩罚除外; 第二款 国会有权以适当立法实施本条。)

Amendment 14: 

Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.

Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.

Section 1.

 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2.

 Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3.

 No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.

 The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.

 The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

( 第一款 所有在合众国出生或归化合众国并受其管辖的人,都是合众国的和他们居住州的公民。任何一州,都不得制定或实施限制合众国公民的特权或豁免权的任何法律;不经正当法律程序,不得剥夺任何人的生命、自由或财产;在州管辖范围内,也不得拒绝给予任何人以平等法律保护。

 第二款 众议员名额,应按各州人口比例进行分配,此人口数包括一州的全部人口数,但不包括未被征税的印第安人。但在选举合众国总统和副总统选举人、国会众议员、州 行政和司法官员或州议会议员的任何选举中,一州的[年满二十一岁]⑩并且是合众国公民的任何男性居民,除因参加叛乱或其他犯罪外,如其选举权道到拒绝或受 到任何方式的限制,则该州代表权的基础,应按以上男性公民的人数同该州年满二十一岁男性公民总人数的比例予以削减。

 第三款 无论何人,凡先前曾以国会议员、或合众国官员、或任何州议会议员、或任何州行政或司法官员的身份宣誓维护合众国宪法,以后又对合众国作乱或反叛,或给予合 众国敌人帮助或鼓励,都不得担任国会参议员或众议员、或总统和副总统选举人,或担任合众国或任何州属下的任何文职或军职官员。但国会得以两院各三分之二的 票数取消此种限制。

 第四款 对于法律批准的合众国公共债务,包括因支付平定作乱或反叛有功人员的年金和奖金而产生的债务,其效力不得有所怀疑。但无论合众国或任何一州,都不得承担或 偿付因援助对合众国的作乱或反叛而产生的任何债务或义务,或因丧失或解放任何奴隶而提出的任何赔偿要求;所有这类债务、义务和要求,都应被认为是非法和无效的。

 第五款 国会有权以适当立法实施本条规定。)

Amendment 15: 

Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.

Section 1.

 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude--

Section 2.

 The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 (第一款 合众国公民的选举权,不得因种族、肤色或以前是奴隶而被合众国或任何一州加以拒绝或限制。

 第二款 国会有权以适当立法实施本条。)

Amendment 16: 

Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.

Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

国会有权对任何来源的收入规定和征收所得税,无须在各州按比例进行分配,也无须考虑任何人口普查或人口统计。)

Amendment 17: 

Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.

Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

( 合众国参议院由每州人民选举的两名参议员组成,任期六年;每名参议员有一票表决权。每个州的选举人应具备该州州议会人数最多一院选举人所必需的资格。

 任何一州在参议院的代表出现缺额时,该州行政当局应发布选举令,以填补此项缺额。但任何一州的议会,在人民依该议会指示举行选举填补缺额以前,得授权本州行政长官任命临时参议员。

 本条修正案不得作如此解释,以致影响在本条修正案作为宪法的一部分生效以前当选的任何参议员的选举或任期。)

Amendment 18: 

Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed by amendment 21.

Section 1.

 After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2.

 The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3.

 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

(第一款 本条批准一年后,禁止在合众国及其管辖下的一切领土内酿造、出售和运送作为饮料的致醉酒类;禁止此类酒类输入或输出合众国及其管辖下的一切领土。

 第二款 国会和各州都有权以适当立法实施本条。

 第三款 本条除非在国会将其提交各州之日起七年以内,由各州议会按本宪法规定批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。)

Amendment 19: 

Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

( 合众国公民的选举权,不得因性别而校合众国或任何一州加以拒绝或限制。 国会有权以适当立法实施本条。)

Amendment 20: 

Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933.

Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.

Section 1.

 The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2.

 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3.

 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4.

 The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5.

 Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6.

 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

( 第一款 总统和副总统的任期应在本条未获批准前原定任期届满之年的一月二十日正午结束,参议员和众议员的任期在本条未获批准前原定任期届满之年的一月三日正午结束,他们继任人的任期在同时开始。

 国会每年至少应开会一次,除国会以法律另订日期外,此会议在一月三日正午开始。

 如当选总统在规定总统任期开始的时间已经死亡,当选副总统应成为

 总统。如在规定总统任期开始的时间以前,总统尚未选出,或当选总统不合乎资格,则当选副总统应代理总统直到 一名总统已合乎资格时为止。在当选总统和当选副总统都不合乎资格时,国会得以法律规定代理总统之人,或宣布选出代理总统的办法。此人应代理总统直到一名总 统或副总统合乎资格时为止。

 国会得以法律对以下情况作出规定:在选举总统的权利转移到众议院时,而可被该院选为总统的人中有人死亡;在选举副总统的权利转移到参议院时,而可被该院选为副总统的人中有人死亡。

 第五款 第一款和第二款应在本条批准以后的十月十五日生效。

 第六款 本条除非在其提交各州之日起七年以内,自四分之三州议会批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。)

Amendment 21: 

Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.

Section 1.

 The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.

 The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3.

 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

 (第一款 美利坚合众国宪法修正案第十八条现予废除。

 在合众国任何州、领地或属地内,凡违反当地法律为在当地发货或使用而运送或输入致醉酒类,均予以禁止。

 本条除非在国会将其提交各州之日起七年以内,由各州制宪会议依本宪法规定批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。)

Amendment 22: 

Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.

Section 1.

 No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2.

 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

(无论何人,当选担任总统职务不得超过两次;无论何人,在他人当选总统任期内担任总统职务或代理总统两年以上,不得当选担任总统职务一次以上。但本条不适用 于在国会提出本条时正在担任总统职务的任何人;也不妨碍本条在一届总统任期内生效时正在担任总统职务或代理总统的任何人,在此届任期结束前继续担任总统职 务或代理总统。

 本条除非在国会将其提交各州之日起七年以内,由四分之三州议会批准为宪法修正案,不得发生效力。)

Amendment 23: 

Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.

Section 1.

 The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2.

 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 ( 第一款 合众国政府所在的特区,应依国会规定方式选派:一定数目的总统和副总统选举人,其人数如同特区是一个州一样,等于它在国会有权拥有的参议员和众议员人数的 总和,但不得超过人口最少之州的选举人人数。他们是在各州所选派的举人以外增添的人,但为了选举总统和副总统的目的,应被视为一个州选派的选举人;他们在 特区集会,履行第十二条修正案所规定的职责。

 第二款 国会有权以适当立法实施本条。)

Amendment 24: 

Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964.

Section 1.

 The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.

Section 2.

 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

(第一款 合众国公民在总统或副总统、总统或副总统选举人、或国会参议员或众议员的任何预选或其他选举中的选举权,不得因未交纳任何人头税或其他税而被合众国或任何一州加以拒绝或限制。

 第二款 国会有权以适当立法实施本条。)

Amendment 25: 

Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.

Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th amendment.

Section 1.

 In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2.

 Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3.

 Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4.

 Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

( 第一款 如遇总统被免职、死亡或辞职,副总统应成为总统。

 第二款 凡当副总统职位出缺时,总统应提名一名副总统,经国会两院都以过半数票批准后就职。

 第三款 凡当总统向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,声称他不能够履行其职务的权力和责任,直至他向他们提交一份相反的声明为止,其权力和责任应由副总统作为代理总统履行。

 第四款 凡当副总统和行政各部长官的多数或国会以法律设立的其他机构成员的多数,向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,声称总统不能够履行总统职务的权力和责任时,副总统应立即作为代理总统承担总统职务的权力和责任。

 此后,当总统向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,声称丧失能力的情况不存在时,他应恢复总统职务的权力和责任, 除非副总统和行政各部长官的多数或国会以法律设立的其它机构成员的多数在四天之内向参议院临时议长和众议院议长提交书面声明,声称总统不能够履行总统职务 的权力和责任。在此种情况下,国会应决定这一问题,如在休会期间,应为此目的在四十八小时以内集会。如国会在收到后一书面声明后的二十一天以内,或如适逢 休会期间,则在国会按照要求集会以后的二十一天以内,以两院的三分之二的票数决定总统不能够履行总统职务的权力和责任,副总统应继续作为代理总统履行总统 职务的权力和责任;否则总统应恢复总统职务的权力和责任。)

Amendment 26: 

Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971.

Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment.

Section 1.

 The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2.

 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 (第一款 年满十八岁和十八岁以上的合众国公民的选举权,不得因为年龄而被合众国或任何一州加以拒绝或限制。

 第二款 国会有权以适当立法实施本条。)

Amendment 27: 

Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992. 

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.

( 改变参议员和众议员服务报酬的法律,在众议员选举举行之前不得生效。)

美国宪法修正案(《权利法案》)

第一条修正案〔1791〕

国会不得制定关于下列事项的法律:确立国教或禁止宗教活动自由;限制言论自由或出版自由;或剥夺人民和平集会和向政府请愿申冤的权利。

第二条修正案〔1791〕

纪律严明的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,因此人民持有和携带武器的权利不得侵犯。

第三条修正案〔1791〕

在和平时期,未经房主同意,士兵不得在民房驻扎;除依法律规定的方式,战时也不允许如此。

第四条修正案〔1791〕

人民的人身、住宅、文件和财产不受无理搜查和扣押的权利,不得侵犯。除依照合理根据,以宣誓或代誓宣言保证,并具体说明搜查地点和扣押的人或物,不得发出搜查和扣押状。

第五条修正案〔1791〕

无论何人,除非根据大陪审团的报告或起诉,不得受判处死罪或其他不名誉罪行之审判,惟发生在陆、海军中或发生在战时或出现公共危险时服现役的民兵中的案件, 不在此限。任何人不得因同一罪行为而两次遭受生命或身体的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自证其罪;不经正当法律程序,不得被剥夺生命、自由或财产。不给予公平赔偿,私有财产不得充作公用。

第六条修正案〔1791〕

在一切刑事诉讼中,被告享有下列权利:由犯罪行为发生地的州和地区的公正陪审团予以迅速而公开的审判,该地区应事先已由法律确定;得知被控告的性质和理由;同原告证人对质;以强制程序取得对其有利的证人;取得律师帮助为其辩护。

第七条修正案〔1791〕

在普通法的诉讼中,其争执价值超过20元,由陪审团审判的权利应受到保护。由陪审团裁决的事实,合众国的任何法院除非按照普通法规则,不得重新审查。

第八条修正案〔1791〕

不得要求过多的保释金,不得处以过重的罚金,不得施加残酷和非常的惩罚。

第九条修正案〔1791〕

本宪法对某些权利的列举,不得被解释为否定或忽视由人民保留的其他权利。

第十条修正案〔1791〕

本宪法未授予合众国、也未禁止各州行使的权力,保留给各州行使,或保留给人民行使之。

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